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智库建议

韩雅娟 | 储能发展前景分析及发展建议
发布日期:2021-07-09 作者:韩雅娟 信息来源:中咨智库 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

在(zai)落实“双碳”目标的(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要背景(jing)下(xia),我国(guo)能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)结构调(diao)(diao)整与新型(xing)电(dian)力系(xi)(xi)统(tong)建设势在(zai)必行。随(sui)着源(yuan)(yuan)网荷储(chu)一(yi)(yi)体化深(shen)度协调(diao)(diao)互动(dong),灵活的(de)(de)能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)电(dian)力系(xi)(xi)统(tong)新模(mo)式将日渐(jian)显现(xian)。这一(yi)(yi)进程将催生大量储(chu)能(neng)应用场景(jing)与装配需求(qiu),储(chu)能(neng)将扮演不可替代的(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)键角色(se)。2021年4月国(guo)家发(fa)(fa)展改(gai)革(ge)委、国(guo)家能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)局印发(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)《关(guan)(guan)于加(jia)快推动(dong)新型(xing)储(chu)能(neng)发(fa)(fa)展的(de)(de)指导意见(jian)(jian)(征求(qiu)意见(jian)(jian)稿)》(以下(xia)简称《指导意见(jian)(jian)》)强调(diao)(diao)储(chu)能(neng)是支撑新型(xing)电(dian)力系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要技术和基础(chu)装备,对推动(dong)能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)绿色(se)转型(xing)、应对极端事件、保障(zhang)能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)安全(quan)、促进能(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)高质(zhi)量发(fa)(fa)展、实现(xian)碳达峰碳中和具有重(zhong)(zhong)要意义。

01国(guo)(guo)际、国(guo)(guo)内储能建设规模分(fen)析及(ji)预(yu)测

在(zai)碳中(zhong)和背景下,国际国内权威机(ji)构、政(zheng)府(fu)机(ji)关和中(zhong)央(yang)企业结合当前实(shi)际与发展要(yao)求,纷(fen)纷(fen)预测或提出(chu)储能(neng)装机(ji)规模的时间(jian)表、路线图。总(zong)体(ti)来看,在(zai)各国政(zheng)府(fu)大(da)力(li)引导推动下,国际国内储能(neng)市场将(jiang)高速增长。

(一) 国际储能建设规模

全(quan)球储(chu)(chu)能装(zhuang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)规(gui)(gui)模(mo)未来(lai)十年(nian)将高速(su)增(zeng)长。2018~2020年(nian)全(quan)球储(chu)(chu)能新增(zeng)装(zhuang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)容量分(fen)别为5.5GW、6.3GW、6.5GW,三年(nian)年(nian)均复合增(zeng)长率为3.5%。根(gen)据国(guo)际(ji)可再生(sheng)能源署(IRENA)展望报告(gao)《电(dian)力储(chu)(chu)存与可再生(sheng)能源:2030年(nian)的(de)成本与市场》的(de)基本预(yu)测情景中(zhong)提出,到2030年(nian),抽水蓄(xu)能装(zhuang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)将达(da)到约(yue)230GW;另据国(guo)际(ji)能源署(IEA)《2050净零排放:全(quan)球能源路线图》报告(gao)中(zhong)预(yu)测,电(dian)池(chi)储(chu)(chu)能到2030年(nian)装(zhuang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)规(gui)(gui)模(mo)将达(da)到590GW。2030年(nian),在(zai)仅考虑抽水蓄(xu)能和电(dian)池(chi)储(chu)(chu)能的(de)情况下[1],储(chu)(chu)能总装(zhuang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)规(gui)(gui)模(mo)将达(da)到约(yue)820GW,2020~2030年(nian)复合增(zeng)长率约(yue)16%。

图 1 2015-2020年全(quan)球储(chu)能市(shi)场(chang)累计(ji)装机规模(单位:GW)

电池(chi)(chi)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)将成为(wei)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)新(xin)增(zeng)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)的重要(yao)(yao)来(lai)源(yuan)和未来(lai)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)的主要(yao)(yao)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)支撑。截(jie)至2020年(nian)底,全球储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)已(yi)投(tou)运项目累计装机(ji)(ji)(ji)规模为(wei)191GW,其中抽(chou)水(shui)(shui)蓄(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)规模为(wei)172GW,占比90%,电池(chi)(chi)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)15GW,抽(chou)水(shui)(shui)蓄(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)占据(ju)绝对主导地(di)位。根(gen)据(ju)IRENA和IEA预(yu)测的抽(chou)水(shui)(shui)蓄(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)和电池(chi)(chi)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)情况,到2030年(nian),抽(chou)水(shui)(shui)蓄(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)增(zeng)加(jia)至230GW,2020~2030年(nian)复(fu)合(he)增(zeng)长率(lv)(lv)约(yue)(yue)(yue)3%,电池(chi)(chi)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)增(zeng)加(jia)至590GW,2020~2030年(nian)复(fu)合(he)增(zeng)长率(lv)(lv)约(yue)(yue)(yue)44%。据(ju)此推算,到2030年(nian),抽(chou)水(shui)(shui)蓄(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)与电池(chi)(chi)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)比例约(yue)(yue)(yue)为(wei)1:2.5,电池(chi)(chi)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)占比超过70%,成为(wei)未来(lai)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)重要(yao)(yao)支撑性(xing)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)来(lai)源(yuan)。

图 2 2020-2030年全球(qiu)抽水蓄能(neng)和(he)电池储(chu)能(neng)累计装机规模(单位(wei):GW)

(二) 国内储能建设规模

2020年我(wo)国新(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机2.6GW,储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)总(zong)装机规(gui)模(mo)约34GW。根据CESA数(shu)据,2020年我(wo)国新(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机2.6GW,其中(zhong)抽(chou)水蓄能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)新(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)装机容量为1.8GW,占比为69.5%,电池储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)新(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)装机容量为0.79MW,占比30.4%。根据《中(zhong)国电力行业(ye)年度发展报告(gao)2021》与(yu)CNESA数(shu)据推测,截至(zhi)2020年底,我(wo)国储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)总(zong)装机规(gui)模(mo)约34GW,其中(zhong)抽(chou)水蓄能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)约31GW,电池储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)约3GW。

到(dao)2025年(nian),我(wo)国储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)规(gui)模新(xin)(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)60GW以(yi)上,有望达(da)到(dao)94GW。《指导意见(jian)》提出,计(ji)划到(dao)2025年(nian),新(xin)(xin)型储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)[2]装机(ji)(ji)规(gui)模达(da)30GW以(yi)上。此外,国家电(dian)(dian)网(wang)透露(lu)(lu)其(qi)(qi)在运、在建抽水(shui)蓄(xu)(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)规(gui)模达(da)到(dao)62GW,“十四五(wu)”期(qi)间(jian),将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)力(li)争新(xin)(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)开工20GW以(yi)上;南方电(dian)(dian)网(wang)透露(lu)(lu),其(qi)(qi)到(dao)2025年(nian)将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)投产(chan)5GW抽水(shui)蓄(xu)(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)站。保守(shou)估计(ji),“两网(wang)”在“十四五(wu)”期(qi)间(jian)或将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)新(xin)(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)30GW以(yi)上抽水(shui)蓄(xu)(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)。“十四五(wu)”期(qi)间(jian),我(wo)国新(xin)(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)抽水(shui)蓄(xu)(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)和电(dian)(dian)池(chi)储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)装机(ji)(ji)或将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)超(chao)过60GW。其(qi)(qi)中(zhong),新(xin)(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)装机(ji)(ji)中(zhong)一半为(wei)(wei)电(dian)(dian)池(chi)储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)、一半为(wei)(wei)抽水(shui)蓄(xu)(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng),电(dian)(dian)池(chi)储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)年(nian)复合增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)长率(lv)约为(wei)(wei)58%,抽水(shui)蓄(xu)(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)年(nian)复合增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)长率(lv)为(wei)(wei)14%,电(dian)(dian)池(chi)储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)速将(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)远高于抽水(shui)蓄(xu)(xu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)。

02 储(chu)能发展面临(lin)的挑战

大力发(fa)展储能已形成(cheng)良好的政府间共识和(he)技术(shu)基础(chu),但仍(reng)面临(lin)重重挑战。

(一) 建设成本仍高昂,商业模式不清晰

电(dian)池储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)虽然相较其他储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)而(er)言具备(bei)(bei)综合性成本优势,但全生命周(zhou)期(qi)度(du)电(dian)成本仍然偏高(gao)(gao),位于(yu)(yu)0.5~1.5元/kwh之间,远高(gao)(gao)于(yu)(yu)进入平(ping)价(jia)时代的(de)风光电(dian)价(jia)。据专家预(yu)测,在目前体制机制下,储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)度(du)电(dian)成本需要下降到0.1~0.3元,行业(ye)(ye)内(nei)多数企业(ye)(ye)才能(neng)(neng)(neng)具备(bei)(bei)足够(gou)的(de)承(cheng)担能(neng)(neng)(neng)力,方可形成在全国大(da)面积铺开的(de)商(shang)业(ye)(ye)模式(shi)。

(二)政策形势不明朗,资本观望氛围浓

储能对传(chuan)统电力(li)系统而言是新生事物,相关部委关于(yu)储能未来科学合理的(de)监(jian)管模式尚未达成(cheng)共识。导(dao)致了行业发展在效(xiao)率考量与(yu)安全考虑间徘徊、在政府主导(dao)与(yu)市(shi)场(chang)自主间徘徊,传(chuan)导(dao)至资本市(shi)场(chang)则体现为投资的(de)忽冷(leng)忽热,不利于(yu)形成(cheng)稳定的(de)预期和增(zeng)量式资本导(dao)入(ru)。

(三) 标准体系未建立,安全运营存隐患

目前(qian)对适应我国储能产业(ye)发展(zhan)的(de)安(an)(an)全策略尚(shang)未(wei)形(xing)成顶(ding)层(ceng)共识,电池储能的(de)安(an)(an)全标准(zhun)仍未(wei)建(jian)立,特别是贯(guan)穿(chuan)储能产品(pin)设计、研发、生产、集成等各个流(liu)程的(de)系(xi)统安(an)(an)全体系(xi)尚(shang)未(wei)形(xing)成,导致储能产品(pin)安(an)(an)全性(xing)与可靠性(xing)检测(ce)与验证滞后(hou)产业(ye)发展(zhan),部分地区甚至(zhi)发生严重的(de)储能电站起火爆炸事故,引发公众恐慌。

(四) 公众吸引力度小,用户储能开发慢

受电动自(zi)行(xing)车(che)和(he)新(xin)能源(yuan)汽车(che)自(zi)燃爆(bao)炸等负面消息影(ying)响,个人(ren)用(yong)户(hu)对(dui)家(jia)用(yong)中小型电池储能产品安(an)全性存在担忧;同时,峰谷(gu)电价特别是民电峰谷(gu)电价的弹性不足,无法对(dui)大众(zhong)(zhong)用(yong)户(hu)形成(cheng)可(ke)预期收益拉(la)动。导致了我国面向大众(zhong)(zhong)的用(yong)户(hu)侧储能建设几乎空白,与部(bu)分发达国家(jia)的差距不断拉(la)大。

03 促(cu)进(jin)储(chu)能(neng)发展的若干建设

为(wei)更(geng)好地发(fa)挥政府引导(dao)性作用(yong)、提高(gao)各(ge)市场(chang)主体的积极性,同时优化储(chu)能布局(ju)、降低全社会建设成(cheng)本,促进我国储(chu)能健(jian)康发(fa)展,提出以下建议。

(一)积(ji)极发展(zhan)V2G技(ji)术(shu),加快储能与(yu)电(dian)动汽车的融(rong)合发展(zhan)。

2021、2025年(nian)(nian)我国(guo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)汽车销量(liang)将(jiang)(jiang)分(fen)别(bie)超过(guo)(guo)100万辆(liang)、500万辆(liang),且长(zhang)(zhang)期仍将(jiang)(jiang)高速增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)长(zhang)(zhang)。按每(mei)辆(liang)车10kW/50kWh的(de)(de)(de)容(rong)(rong)量(liang)预测(ce),2021、2025年(nian)(nian)分(fen)别(bie)新(xin)(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)10GW、50GW的(de)(de)(de)潜在“储(chu)能”装机(ji)。按线性推算,2021~2025五年(nian)(nian)将(jiang)(jiang)累计新(xin)(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)150GW动(dong)力(li)电(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)容(rong)(rong)量(liang),若20%的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)汽车参与(yu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)互动(dong)储(chu)能,可带来30GW的(de)(de)(de)移动(dong)储(chu)能装机(ji)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan),与(yu)《指导(dao)意(yi)见(jian)》中“十四五”新(xin)(xin)型储(chu)能装机(ji)整体目(mu)标值相当(dang)。此外,车辆(liang)夜(ye)充(chong)昼用(yong)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)夜(ye)谷(gu)昼峰,电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)汽车的(de)(de)(de)使用(yong)时间特(te)性与(yu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)峰谷(gu)特(te)性可有(you)效搭配,为通(tong)(tong)过(guo)(guo)V2G技(ji)术(shu)发(fa)展(zhan)车辆(liang)储(chu)能提供了良(liang)好的(de)(de)(de)先(xian)天基础。建议深挖利(li)用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)汽车容(rong)(rong)量(liang)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan),通(tong)(tong)过(guo)(guo)发(fa)展(zhan)虚拟电(dian)(dian)(dian)厂技(ji)术(shu)聚(ju)合分(fen)散(san)的(de)(de)(de)动(dong)力(li)电(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)储(chu)能资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)、提高充(chong)放电(dian)(dian)(dian)过(guo)(guo)程的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)友好性,促进储(chu)能与(yu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)汽车融合发(fa)展(zhan),以轻资(zi)(zi)产运营模式(shi)降低全社会(hui)总资(zi)(zi)产投入;同(tong)时,预计2025年(nian)(nian)退役(yi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)将(jiang)(jiang)达到93亿瓦(wa)时,每(mei)年(nian)(nian)退役(yi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)数量(liang)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)长(zhang)(zhang)将(jiang)(jiang)超过(guo)(guo)100万量(liang)级。由此将(jiang)(jiang)带来巨大的(de)(de)(de)梯次利(li)用(yong)潜在市场价(jia)值,应前瞻性关注退役(yi)动(dong)力(li)电(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)梯次利(li)用(yong)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)以及相关技(ji)术(shu)难(nan)题,通(tong)(tong)过(guo)(guo)退役(yi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)资(zi)(zi)源(yuan)“再利(li)用(yong)”延缓新(xin)(xin)增(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)(zeng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)制造投资(zi)(zi)、降低生(sheng)产中的(de)(de)(de)碳排(pai)。

(二)发(fa)展电动汽车充/换电站(zhan)(zhan)与储能电站(zhan)(zhan)“共建模(mo)式”,通过“一站(zhan)(zhan)多能”“荷储一体”优化商业(ye)模(mo)式。

一(yi)(yi)方面,电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动汽车换(huan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)拥有(you)大量(liang)(liang)的(de)换(huan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)容(rong)量(liang)(liang),每(mei)天(tian)产生大量(liang)(liang)的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力交易规模。换(huan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)可(ke)利用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)峰(feng)(feng)谷(gu)(gu)时(shi)段有(you)选择(ze)地进(jin)行充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)并在(zai)提供换(huan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)服务时(shi)售出,实(shi)质上发挥了储(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)的(de)职能(neng)(neng)。在(zai)此基础(chu)上可(ke)进(jin)一(yi)(yi)步拓宽其商业(ye)模式,即在(zai)换(huan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)配(pei)置一(yi)(yi)定(ding)的(de)储(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)容(rong)量(liang)(liang),用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)低(di)(di)(di)谷(gu)(gu)低(di)(di)(di)价时(shi)段从电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)购电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),存储(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)到(dao)待换(huan)动力电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)和(he)储(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)中,用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)高(gao)峰(feng)(feng)高(gao)价时(shi)从储(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)和(he)备用(yong)动力电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)中反向售电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)给电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang),赚取(qu)(qu)峰(feng)(feng)谷(gu)(gu)价差。另(ling)一(yi)(yi)方面,在(zai)现(xian)有(you)充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)基础(chu)上加配(pei)储(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)设施,在(zai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)价低(di)(di)(di)谷(gu)(gu)时(shi)充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),在(zai)充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)高(gao)峰(feng)(feng)期释放存储(chu)(chu)(chu)(chu)的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力,既能(neng)(neng)够缓解电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动汽车充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)时(shi)(特别是大量(liang)(liang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动汽车快速充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)时(shi))对配(pei)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网(wang)的(de)冲(chong)击,也能(neng)(neng)够通过赚取(qu)(qu)峰(feng)(feng)谷(gu)(gu)价差提升自身盈利水平,实(shi)现(xian)经济效(xiao)益(yi)与绿色(se)效(xiao)益(yi)的(de)统一(yi)(yi)。

(三)优化储能选(xuan)址布局,通过分散布置、集中(zhong)控(kong)制方式降低(di)建(jian)设规模,减低(di)综合成(cheng)本(ben)。

当前(qian)部(bu)分省市推出(chu)了风光电(dian)(dian)站配建(jian)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)政策要求(qiu),可(ke)再生能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)和储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)共址(zhi)配套建(jian)设,例如目前(qian)我(wo)国(guo)多(duo)地要求(qiu)可(ke)再生能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)项目配置5%~20%的(de)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng),不一定是储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)部(bu)署的(de)最佳选(xuan)择,建(jian)议政府和电(dian)(dian)力企业不断改进(jin)储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)址(zhi)规划机制。探(tan)索在(zai)电(dian)(dian)网(wang)侧(ce)布局(ju)大型储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)站点同时服务多(duo)个(ge)新(xin)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)电(dian)(dian)场的(de)模(mo)(mo)式,运用5G、物联网(wang)、云计算等技(ji)术实现集中控制、设备共用,通(tong)过“共享模(mo)(mo)式”提高储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)站间(jian)、储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)站与风光电(dian)(dian)场的(de)协(xie)同性,减少储(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)建(jian)设规模(mo)(mo)要求(qiu),降低全社会(hui)成(cheng)本。

(四) 给予(yu)储(chu)能更加独(du)立(li)的地位,建立(li)健全储(chu)能友好(hao)型政策法规。

欧(ou)洲(zhou)清洁(jie)能(neng)源(yuan)一揽子计划(hua)已将储(chu)能(neng)定义为(wei)独立于(yu)发电、输(shu)电或负(fu)载(zai)的(de)实体,给予了针(zhen)对(dui)性(xing)的(de)促进政(zheng)(zheng)策(ce)(ce)。建议(yi)政(zheng)(zheng)府(fu)将储(chu)能(neng)作为(wei)实体对(dui)象纳入电力(li)系统整体建设(she)规(gui)划(hua)中(zhong),形(xing)成(cheng)以(yi)发展为(wei)牵引、以(yi)问题(ti)为(wei)导向的(de)快(kuai)(kuai)速决策(ce)(ce)机(ji)制,在完善碳税交易、弹性(xing)电价(jia)、容量市场、电力(li)期货市场、辅助(zhu)服(fu)务市场、输(shu)配(pei)电投资(zi)建设(she)制度中(zhong),给予储(chu)能(neng)明(ming)确定位(wei)(wei)与政(zheng)(zheng)策(ce)(ce)倾斜。通过制度设(she)计形(xing)成(cheng)由(you)政(zheng)(zheng)府(fu)定价(jia)向市场竞价(jia)的(de)转变,保障(zhang)社会资(zi)本投入,借助(zhu)资(zi)本投入提(ti)升发展质量、加快(kuai)(kuai)发展速度。此外,应大力(li)克服(fu)部门利(li)益、本位(wei)(wei)主义,完善政(zheng)(zheng)府(fu)部门间及不同地方政(zheng)(zheng)府(fu)间相(xiang)互支持、密切配(pei)合、信息共享的(de)联动(dong)机(ji)制,形(xing)成(cheng)工作合力(li),出(chu)台科学系统、具(ju)体有效的(de)管理(li)办法(fa)以(yi)协同推动(dong)有关政(zheng)(zheng)策(ce)(ce)的(de)落地实施,尽量避免(mian)“政(zheng)(zheng)出(chu)多(duo)门”及政(zheng)(zheng)策(ce)(ce)法(fa)规(gui)要求相(xiang)互重(zhong)复、冲突(tu)的(de)现象。

(五)提高公众(zhong)参与意(yi)愿,鼓励个人(ren)用户安装,探索储能与乡村振兴有机融合。

与(yu)(yu)部(bu)分(fen)发(fa)(fa)达国家相(xiang)比(bi),我(wo)国家庭储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)安装(zhuang)数量(liang)较少。建议提升公众对储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)认(ren)知,鼓励更多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)家庭购买储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)装(zhuang)置,在形(xing)成一定(ding)用(yong)户规模基础(chu)上,深度挖(wa)掘用(yong)户侧(ce)储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)在电(dian)力系(xi)统中的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要作用(yong)。鉴于我(wo)国城市人(ren)口高(gao)度密集的(de)(de)(de)(de)现状,建议出台“储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)下乡(xiang)(xiang)”政策(ce)将储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)纳入“乡(xiang)(xiang)村(cun)振兴(xing)”与(yu)(yu)“美丽中国”建设中,充(chong)分(fen)利用(yong)村(cun)镇地(di)区丰富的(de)(de)(de)(de)土地(di)与(yu)(yu)可再生资源优势,在乡(xiang)(xiang)镇区域探索储(chu)(chu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)与(yu)(yu)微电(dian)网融合发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)模式。

(六)加快建立并完善储能安(an)全标准与应(ying)急规范,提高(gao)储能应(ying)用的安(an)全水平。

应避免(mian)(mian)缺乏(fa)储能系(xi)(xi)统标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)而造成的(de)无序发展(zhan)状况(kuang),避免(mian)(mian)单一安全事故(gu)引起的(de)社会性恐慌与(yu)资本寒冬。建议加(jia)快建立健(jian)全储能系(xi)(xi)统分级分类(lei)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)、测试标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)、安装标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)、隐患定位标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)、系(xi)(xi)统老化异常(chang)检测标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)、险情(qing)评(ping)估模(mo)型、相应的(de)消防策略与(yu)应急规范以及安全事件(jian)的(de)问责(ze)追溯与(yu)惩罚机制,确保储能系(xi)(xi)统的(de)长期健(jian)康发展(zhan)。





 
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